Foundation Program Sites

What is the Knowledge Center?

This page is meant to provide the public and patients with a library of resources to improve patient safety, outcomes, and engagement with the healthcare system. This page is drawn from resources discussed at WPSC workgroups and from our other educational programming.

This page is meant to be a living library of resources. Do you have additional resources you’d like to see added to one of these topics? Is there a new patient safety topic we should add to the catalog? Please contact us with your ideas.

Addressing Stigma and Bias is the focus of a WPSC workgroup that aims to raise awareness of stigma and bias in healthcare settings and the detrimental outcomes associated with implicit and explicit bias. The below resources are on disparities, stigma, and bias have been compiled with the help of the Addressing Stigma and Bias workgroup members.

General Topics

Discrimination: A Social Determinant of Health
As a stressor, discrimination is a social determinant of health in its own right, getting “under the skin,” or embodied, through the direct physiologic impact of stress. This commentary in Health Affairs describes direct and indirect health effects of discrimination.

Eliminating Disparities to Advance Health Equity and Improve Quality, MHA Keystone Center
The Michigan Hospital Association provides this guide to provide practical
guidance for organizations seeking to eliminate disparities in care to advance health equity by offering strategic pillars for implementation, action resources, and more.

Tony Ruth’s Equity Series Illustrations
These illustrations, created originally for the 2019 Design in Tech Report, are free for your organization to use as simple examples of the differences between inequality, equality, equity, and justice (sometimes referred to as liberation).

Stigma in Health Facilities: Why It Matters and How we Can Change it
Addressing stigma is fundamental to delivering quality healthcare and achieving optimal health. This correspondence article seeks to assess how developments over the past 5 years have contributed to the state of programmatic knowledge—both approaches and methods—regarding interventions to reduce stigma in health facilities, and explores the potential to concurrently address multiple health condition stigmas.

Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias Among Health Care Professionals and Its Influence on Health Care Outcomes: A Systematic Review
This article, originally published in the American Journal of Public Health, investigates the extent to which implicit racial/ethnic bias exists among health care professionals and examined the relationships between health care professionals’ implicit attitudes about racial/ethnic groups and health care outcomes.

American Academy of Family Physicians Implicit Bias Resources
Implicit bias training. You will need to be an AAFP member

Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare: Schwartz Rounds
The Schwartz Rounds program offers healthcare providers a regularly scheduled time during their fast-paced work lives to openly and honestly discuss the social and emotional issues they face in caring for patients and families.


Race/Ethnicity Resources:

CDC: Minority Health Resources
The CDC Minority Health page offers articles, webinars, and conversations for all health sector stakeholders to engage with issues of equity and address disparities. Medline Resources for Specific Populations
Medline offers the following landing pages as a research tool for specific racial and ethnic population health disparities.

Race/Ethnicity Disparity Literature

IHI: The Role of Racism as a Core Patient Safety Issue
The IHI offers this brief commentary with three things leaders can do to understand contributing factors to maternal mortality disparities, including racism.

AAFP Webcast: The Public Health Crisis of Racism
Watch the special community discussion on the association between racism and health outcomes, implementing practice skills that identify and address racial trauma in the clinical setting, and ways to engage with community partners to advance strategies that advance racial equity in the community.

LGBTQIA+ Healthcare

What Does the Acronym LGBTQ+ Mean? 
The LGBTQ+ acronym has evolved over the years to include an expansive community. This resource, from Ok 2 Be Me, operated by KW Counseling, outlines all the possible definitions for the letters of LGBTQIA+.

Human Rights Campaign: Healthcare Equality Index for LGBTQ Patients and Families
Now in its 13th year, the Healthcare Equality Index (HIE) is the national LGBTQ benchmarking tool that evaluates healthcare practices and policies related to equity and inclusion of their LGBTQ+ patients.

MAP: The Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 on LGBTQ+ Households
The Movement Advancement Project conducted this survey research project in 2020 to determine how COVID-19 has affected LGBTQ+ households compared to non-LGBTQ respondents with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

UC Davis LGBTQIA Resource Center
This resource from UC Davis offers articles and resources related to health and equity ranging from behavioral health to housing.

BREE Collaborative
LGBTQ Health Care
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning or queer (LGBTQ) persons often have distinct health care needs, including higher rates of behavioral health concerns. Men who have sex with men and transgender people who have sex with men have a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, stigma and lack of training serve as barriers to consistent high-quality medical care and increase health disparities. The workgroup met from December 2017 to September 2018 to develop recommendations to align care delivery with existing evidence-based, culturally sensitive standard of care for LGBTQ people in Washington State organized around the following focus areas:

  • Appropriate communication and language and supportive, inclusive environments
  • Guidelines for screening and taking a social and sexual history
  • Defining areas requiring LGBTQ-specific standards and systems of care


Gender Disparities

Office of Women’s Health: A-Z Health Topics
This resource offered through the US Department of Health and Human Services serves as a landing page for various health resources specific to women. All resources on the page are copyright-free and available for your education and research purposes.

NIH: Women of Color Health Data Book
This comprehensive data book, developed in 2014, is an essential resource about the status of health disparities among women in the United States and the importance of intersectionality when discussing health outcomes.

American Psychological Association: Health Disparities in Vulnerable Men and Boys
This resource by the APA summarizes several health disparities and concerns for men and boys with a focus on marginalized groups. Specifically, this resource addresses health disparities for men and boys in the BIPOC community, men who identify as sexual minorities, and behavioral health concerns with toxic masculinity.

Mental Health

Institute of Mental Health: Video Gallery on Stigma and Bias
This series of videos aim to increase the awareness of commonly known mental conditions, reduce the stigma associated with mental illness and promote mental health and wellness. It is also important to recognize when you may need help from a professional. Recovery is possible with early detection and treatment.

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change.
This chapter describes direct evidence of how stigma affects mental and substance use disorders and outlines practical steps to take to reduce stigma and discrimination to improve behavioral health outcomes.

BREE Collaborative – Suicide Care
Suicide is a leading cause of death with rates that vary depending on race, ethnicity, age, veteran status, and sexual and gender minority. This BREE workgroup met from February to September 2018 to develop recommendations organized around the following focus areas:

  • Identification of suicide risk through universal screening of all patients over 13
  • Assessment of suicide risk following identification
  • Suicide risk management including clinical pathways for timely and adequate care
  • Suicide risk treatment using available evidence
  • Follow-up and support after a suicide attempt
  • Follow-up and support after a suicide death including for providers

Mental Health America (MHA)
Tools 2 Thrive
MHA’s Tools 2 Thrive series provides information, tips, and practical tools that everyone can use to improve their mental health and increase resiliency regardless of the situations they are dealing with.

Mental Health America Self-Assessment Screening Tools
Mental Health America, the nation’s leading community-based nonprofit dedicated to addressing the needs of those living with mental illness, offers several helpful screening tools to determine symptoms of a mental health condition.

Mental Health America Connect
Info on Conditions, Crisis Handling & Support Groups

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
Pledge to Be StigmaFree
The StigmaFree campaign is NAMI’s effort to end stigma and create hope for those affected by mental illness. “Through powerful words and actions, we can shift the social and systemic barriers for those living with mental health conditionsTogether, we can encourage acceptance and understanding. Together, we can advocate for a better world. Together, we can turn StigmaFree Me into StigmaFree We.”
Tools & resources organizations can use to implement a stigma free culture

NAMI Connections: Support Groups for People with Mental Health Conditions
NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation’s largest grassroots mental health organization, provides peer led support groups which offer participants an opportunity to share their experiences and gain support from other attendees.

NAMI Provider: Mental Health Education for Providers
NAMI Provider, a 15-hour program of in-service training, introduces mental health professionals to the unique perspectives of people with mental health conditions and their families.

AAFP Implicit Bias Training Guide
An article announcing and describing The American Academy of Family Physicians EveryONE Project Implicit Bias Training Guide, to promote awareness of implicit bias among primary care physicians and their practice teams, and provide resources for instructing health care professionals on how to reduce its negative effects on patients. Requires creating an account with AAFP.

The Clinician Well-being Playbook
Addressing burnout among clinicians and other health care professionals is a top challenge facing hospitals and health systems today, and fundamental to delivering high quality care. These resources will help hospital and health system leaders take action by systematically tackling drivers of burnout and implementing changes to promote well-being.

WSPC and WSMA Health Equity Webinars

The following webinars were developed by the WPSC’s Addressing Stigma and Bias workgroup and administered by WSMA and WPSC. All webinar recordings are available for free on WSMA’s website.

External Resources

Medline/PubMed Health Disparities Resources
This resource collaboration from MedLine and PubMed attempts to compile emerging research on health disparities in one location. This can serve as a starting point for those interested in disparity research for specific populations.

The Cross Cultural Health Care Program
The Cross Cultural Health Care Program offers a variety of resources and educational programs to reduce disparities. Specifically, they offer medical interpreter training for both individuals and organizations.

AHRQ: Guide to Priority Populations
AHRQ is committed to providing quality care to everyone in the United States, and recognizes that part of that commitment is improving care for “priority populations” who have historically experienced poor health outcomes. AHRQ’s current priority populations are women, racial/ethnic minorities, children/adolescents, the elderly, low-income, and rural/inner-city residents.


The Pendleton Project: Making Health Care Accessible to All
The small town of Pendleton, Oregon, provides an example of how best to ensure disability rights for a community and tackle the barriers to health care faced by people with disabilities.

CDC’s website on Disability and Health Promotion

Improving Access to Care for People with Disabilities
The CMS Office of Minority Health works to ensure that people with disabilities receive equal access to quality health care information and services. Use this page to find tools and resources that can help you improve services and help patients understand their rights.

Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund
One of the older and successful disability advocacy organizations. They were heavily involved in the passage of the ADA.

Medication errors are one of the leading causes of injury to hospital patients, and unintended medication discrepancies occur in nearly one-third of patients at admission. Medication reconciliation refers to the process of avoiding such inadvertent inconsistencies by reviewing the patient’s medication regiment and comparing it with a proposed regimen. These resources can help care providers and patients understand the medications they are taking and create future care plans that avoid errors and harm.


Steve Riddle, Pharmacy OneSource
Medication Reconciliation, Definition & Drivers

Medication Safety Workgroup
PowerPoint slides for patients/lay audiences. You are welcome to use these slides and to customize them.

Tools and Resources

Brochures from Providence St. Mary PDF Version PDF Version en Espanol

My Medicine List mini-poster: prints on standard letter size paper (8 ½ by 11 inches). PDF version

My Medicine List poster: requires special printer (18 x 24 inches; can be printed at your local copy shop). PDF version

Opioid prescribing practices have caused considerable harm and addiction in the United States, leading healthcare professionals to reconsider the practice of pain management. Below is a living library of resources dedicated to addressing the opioid crisis both locally and nationally, available for WPSC members to reference and implement in their own organizations. Please use this page as your hub of opioid safety information and share any resources we may be missing.

The TakeCharge Campaign offers 5 Simple Steps for safer healthcare! The campaign focuses on empowering patients to play an important role in their health care team and offers a way forward for improved outcomes. The five steps of the TakeCharge campaign are:

  1. Step 1: Understand and Complete Your Advanced Directives
  2. Step 2: Keep Track of Your Medical History and Current Medications
  3. Step 3: Prepare for Your Doctor Visit – Make a List of Questions
  4. Step 4: Help Prevent Infections – Ask Caregivers to Wash Their Hands
  5. Step 5: Bring an Advocate, Be an Advocate